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2016~2018年柳州市学校突发公共卫生事件流行病学分析
作者:张伟源 邹晨曦 
单位:(广西柳州市柳南区疾病预防控制中心 柳州 545005) 
关键词:突发公共卫生事件 学校 流行病学 
分类号:R181.3
出版年,卷(期):页码:2019,47(6):456-460
摘要:

目的 分析2016~2018年柳州市柳南区学校突发公共卫生事件流行特征,为制定有效的防控措施提供科学依据。方法 通过国家突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统收集2016~2018年各级医疗卫生机构上报的发生在柳南区的突发公共卫生事件相关资料,采用描述流行病学方法重点分析托幼机构、中小学校和高等院校等学校突发公共卫生事件的特征。结果 2016~2018年柳南区内共报告突发公共卫生事件49起,发生场所均为学校,其中小学37起(75.51%),托幼机构9起(18.37%),中学2起(4.08%),特殊教育学校1起(2.04%);共报告病例4 118例,平均罹患率6.40%(4 118/64 300)。49起均为传染病,以呼吸道传染性疾病为主,主要病种为流行性感冒、手足口病、流行性腮腺炎,分别报告32起(65.31%)、10起(20.41%)和5起(10.20%)。4~6月份和11~12月份是学校突发公共卫生事件发生的两个高峰,分别报告13起(26.53%)和32起(65.31%)。结论 近年来柳南区学校突发公共卫生事件频发,小学和托幼机构是柳南区突发公共卫生事件发生的重点场所,应针对重点场所、重点人群在高发季节采取有效的防控措施,把好学校防控关,做到早发现、早报告、早隔离、早控制。

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies in schools in Liunan District of Liuzhou City from 2016 to 2018,so as to provide cientific basis for formulating effective prevention and control measures.Methods Through National Public Health Emergency Reporting Management Information System,the relevant data of public health emergencies reported by medical and health institutions at all levels from 2016 to 2018 were collected.Descriptive epidemiology method was apply to mainly discuss the characteristics of public health emergencies in kindergartens,primary and secondary schools and colleges and universities.Results From 2016 to 2018,49 public health emergencies were reported in Liunan District,all of which occurred in schools,including 37 cases in primary schools(75.51%),9 cases in nursery institutions(18.37%),2 cases in middle schools(4.08%) and 1 case in special education school(2.04%).A total of 4 118 cases were reported,with an average incidence rate of 6.40%(4 118/64 300).All the 49 public health emergencies were infectious diseases,mainly respiratory infectious diseases,and the main diseases were influenza,hand-foot-mouth disease and epidemic mumps,and 32 cases(65.31%),10 cases(20.41%) and 5 cases(10.20%) of which were reported,respectively.April to June and November to December were the two peaks of public health emergencies in schools,and 13 cases(26.53%) and 32 cases(65.31%) were reported,respectively.Conclusion Recent years,public health emergencies occurred frequently in schools of Liunan District,and primary schools and nursery institutions are the key places for public health emergencies.Effective prevention and control measures should be taken for those places and key populations in the peak seasons,and schools should be well prevented and controlled so as to achieve early detection,early reporting,early isolation and early control.

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